Learn about an Indonesian volcano that glows blue
in the March 2015 issue of National Geographic Kids magazine.
Explosive volcanoes also cause deadly mudflows or lahars. The strong and fast lahar rolls downhill clearing everything in its path.
Photograph by Elena Kalistratova, Shutterstock
The hottest lava, made of basalt, reaches temperatures as hot as 2140 F (1170 C). That's more than four times hotter than a kitchen oven! That's hot enough to melt many kinds of metal including gold, silver, and iron.
Photograph by RZ Design, Shutterstock
Lava creates glass called obsidian. Obsidian is usually black, very strong, and has edges sharper than steel.
Photograph by Alexey Kamenskiy, Shutterstock
How Volcanoes Form
In 1980 in Washington, after 123 years of hibernation, Mount St. Helens erupted. The blast destroyed and scorched 230 square miles (370 square kilometers) of forest within minutes. The eruption released an avalanche of hot ash, gas, steam, and rocks that mowed down giant trees up to 15 miles (24 kilometers) away.
When magma finds a way to escape from beneath the earth's surface, it creates a volcano.
Volcanoes erupt in different ways. Some, like Mount St. Helens, explode. Explosive eruptions are so powerful, they can shoot particles 20 miles up (32 kilometers), hurl 8-ton boulders more than a half mile (0.8 kilometers) away, and cause massive landslides. Explosive eruptions also create an avalanche of hot volcanic debris, ash, and gas that bulldozes everything in its path. Explosive volcanoes cause most of the volcano-related fatalities.
Volcanoes, like Mauna Loa in Hawaii, are effusive. Rather than a violent explosion, lava pours or flows out. Fatalities from effusive volcanoes are rare because people can usually outrun the lava. However, some people get too close or become trapped with no escape. The flowing lava burns, melts, and destroys everything it touches including farms, houses, and roads.
A volcanic eruption forever changes the landscape. Though volcanoes destroy, they also create mountains, islands, and, eventually, incredibly fertile land.
Carpet of Ash
Volcanic eruptions can cause damage hundreds of miles away. Volcanic ash causes airplane engines to fail, destroys crops, contaminates water, and damages electronics and machinery. The ash carpets the ground, burying everything, sometimes even causing buildings to collapse. Mount St. Helens produced more than 490 tons of ash that fell over a 22,000 square mile (56,980 square kilometer) area and caused problems in cities 370 miles (600 kilometers) away.
• The surface of the earth is called the "crust." The crust is cracked or broken into massive pieces called "plates." Magma flows beneath the crust. Volcanoes often form along the edges of where the plates meet.
• Most volcanoes and earthquakes, about 80%, happen close to where two (tectonic) plates meet.
• In the last 200 years, more than 50 volcanoes in the United States have erupted one or more times.
• The eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980 created the largest landslide in recorded history.
• It may be the same hot stuff, but it's called "magma" when it's below the surface. When it's above the surface, it's called "lava."
Text by Ruth A. Musgrave